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Crew and Behind the Scenes Resource Guide


Title: Crew and Behind the Scenes Resource Guide


This little resource guide is all about the crew and behind the scenes which can be a help guide for you when you’re on set on your great jobs.

If you want a more informative menu check out the Film crew and behind the scenes guide.

Art and Set Department: A unit of production crew responsible for the overall appearance of the film through visual artistry. It is managed by a Production Designer and/or Art Director and composed of an Assistant Art Director, Concept Artist, Storyboard Artist, Draftsman, Set Decorator, Set Dresser, Property Master,Leadman, Swing Gang, Production Buyer and Property Assistant.

Art Director (Art and Set Department): The Art Director works directly below the Production Designer and is responsible for the general visual appearance of the film, ensuring that the message and style of the film is accurately conveyed visually.

Assistant Art Director (Art and Set Department): An individual who carries out the instructions of the art director, such as creating graphics and researching information. He or she serves as contact between the artistic staff on the report and the agency art director.

Assistant Editor (Post Production Department): A person who assists an editor to enhance the format, design, as well as precision from the textual content.

Assistant Location Manager ((Location Department): The person who assists the Location managers in creating all the practical arrangements for film, video or photographic shoots taking place outside the studio.

Best Boy (Electrical Department): Person whose business is to assist the individual in charge of fitting or repairing the electrical equipment needed for a motion-picture or television production.

Best Grip (Grip Department): The main assistant of the key grip. A person who is responsible for the operations of the grip truck and other equipment on the grip department. If the key grip is on break or not on the set, he/she may also cover for their job.

Beauty Therapist (Make up and Beauty Department): A person who is responsible for applying the right treatment to enhance a person’s looks such as facial or body massage and removal of unwanted facial and body hair. Perform manicures, pedicures and nail extensions. The one who also analyses body type and advises clients for skin care.

Bodyguards (Security Department): A person or group that are usually armed and are responsible for the security and well being of one or more persons.

Body Artist: A person with natural artistic talent who embellish the human body using different methods of body art such as body painting, permanent makeup, body piercing, tattoos and body shaping.

Boom Operator (Sound Department): A member of the sound crew, they are an assistant of the production sound mixer and responsible for microphone placement in a scene through the use of a boom pole; in essence a microphone attached to the end of a long stick. The boom operator holds this as close as he can to the actor who is speaking, ensuring that at no point does it enter the camera shot.

Buyer (Art and Set Department): A professional shopper that works under the set decorator. Responsible for scouting on shop, house for rent, online and yard sale for props and set dressings for the transformation of the set.

Buyer (Costume and Wardrobe Department): The ones who decide what clothing looks good and popular for fashion. They base their decisions on cost, accessibility, reliability and choice. They normally work closely with designers.

Camera Department: A production crew unit responsible for the shots and the lighting effects of the film. This is under the supervision of a DoP (Director of Photography) who is responsible for directing the whole team in achieving the desired effect as per the Director’s requirements. This department is composed of the Camera Operator, First Assistant Camera, Second Assistant Camera, Film loader, Camera Production Assistant, Digital Imaging Technician,Steadicam Operator, Motion Control Technician.

Camera Operator (Camera Department): A person in charge that literally controls the movement of the camera. They work together with the director, photography director, actors as well as the crew to create specialized and innovative decisions.

 Camera Production Assistant (Camera Department): Supports the camera crew members in the preparation and maintenance of the cameras used on a production.

 Chauffeur (Transportation Department): A person hired to drive passengers.

 Chef (Food Department): A skilled professional who is responsible for the cooking and preparation of the food.

 Choreographer: A person who devises and creates all the dance sequences for a performance. They instruct their dancers on what they require, with regards to dance styles, musical timing and performance.

 Chyron Operator (Post Production Department): The one who makes the titles or graphics utilizing a Chyron branded character generator.

 Cinematographer / Director of Photography (DOP/DP) (Camera Department): Responsible for all artistic conveyance within a film, the cinematographer works to produce all imaging within a film, through the use of photography or a motion picture camera. Working closely with the director, it is the cinematographer’s responsibility to select which lenses, film and filters to use in each individual scene, in order to accurately convey the intentions of that scene.

Colourist (Post Production Department): A skilled artist who specializes on colour effects.

Composer (Sound Department): A person who produces or creates a literary piece of music.

Continuity Supervisor/ Script Supervisor (Production Department): When a scene comprises several different individual shots, it is the continuity supervisor’s tasks to keep track of each take and ensures there is continuity from one shoot to another and maintained the scene to appear seamless. From the style of the actor’s hair, what clothes they are wearing, to something as seemingly unimportant as how much water there is in a glass, everything must be exactly how it was in the preceding take.

Construction Coordinator/ Manager (Art and Set Department): The tasks attributed to the construction coordinator are to plan and manage any construction on set. Working together with the construction grip and carpenters, the construction coordinator ensures that all sets are created correctly and safely in preparation for the art department to paint the set accordingly.

Costume Designer: A person who has a good knowledge of fashion, costume and its history. Responsible for the overall look of the clothes and costumes desired in theatre, film or TV. As well as the sewing, researching, purchasing, actual clothing, designing costumes, accessories and props.

Creative Director (Creative Department): Responsible for creating the visual and written aspects of the production. The person who also act as the chief for communication and interactive design and conception advancing in any work given. They work together with artists, choreographer, designers, sound and light department and much more.

Cutter (Costume and Wardrobe Department): Responsible for creating shapes, press clipping, fitting and construction of costumes from specific designs or sketches supplied by the Designer.

Data Wrangler (Camera Department): A person performing a wrangling using semi-automated tools which manually converts data from one form to another.

Designer (Costume and Wardrobe Department): Fashion professional that is responsible for the persons’ looks and characteristics that would be suitable for the scene. They usually work together with the director and other artists.

Dialogue Editor (Sound Department): A person who edits all the dialogue in the production. Their focus is to make the recorded sound in the studio as clear as possible.

Digital Imaging Technician (Camera Department): Works with digital cinema cameras and manipulate the camera settings acquire the preferred look. Supports the camera department, the first camera assistant and the director of photography.

Dolly Grip (Grip Department): A trained technician that is responsible for the movement and positioning of the camera dolly. Works closely with the camera operator, ensuring its safety and support.

Dresser (Costume and Wardrobe Department): A professional hired to manage the appropriate costumes and dresses to be used by actors in the set. They organize the costumes in the dressing room, according to the character’s name, scene, and act number.

Driver (Transportation Department): A person whose job is to drive any type of transportation.

Editing: The art of crafting a piece of work into its final form, editors are required in all media forms. Video editors are responsible for cutting and reordering scenes, changing music, and any other post-production decisions; written editors are responsible for spelling and punctuation checks, rewriting unclear/vague sentences, and making a written piece flow; and sound editors are responsible for volume levels, cutting and reordering tracks, and, if required, aligning different recordings.

Editorial Department: This department is responsible for the process of assembling movie fragments, trimming down of unnecessary parts of the film to fit in its desired length and ensures that the continuity of the sequence is neat and the quality of the material is at its best.

Electrical Department: Responsible for the design and execution of the lighting plan for a production by setting up and having the control of lighting equipment.

Electricians (Electrical Department): The person responsible for the installation and maintenance of the wiring system on set, this includes the lighting, security, fire and other equipment. They analyse the wiring diagram of the set to ensure safety.

Executive Producer (Production Department): The head producer, he/she supervises the production to ensure the film is finished on the right time, budget and standards. He organizes the production from hiring the actors, crew and equipment. The one who is also in charge of all the negotiations made in the production.

Fashion Designer: Fashion designers work on the design of items of clothing and fashion ranges. Like the costume designer, a fashion designer will need to have a good eye for colour, shape and skills like pattern cutting and sewing.

Fashion Stylists: A person who manages the casts’ overall appearance for a shoot or event. This person has a good knowledge of fashion. They normally produce mood boards to their clients having prep days before the event or fitting day to source the clothing, products or make essential changes to items as required.

Fight Coordinator: A person who is responsible in choreographing the stage fighting routine on set making it look realistic. Ensuring that the performers won’t get harm in executing the stage combat.

Film: The art of capturing and editing moving image. Filmmakers can often be responsible for finding locations, sound recording, equipment choice, as well the traditional recording and editing. Increasingly film makers require basic knowledge of special effects and animation to produce professional quality films in post-production.

Film Director: A person who is the main creative decision maker of any production. Often writes treatments for television commercials, music videos, films or theatre.

Film Editor ((Post Production Department): Is responsible for accumulating the raw materials of the film like camera recording, dialogue, sound effects and visual effects. They usually work closely with the director to get the best quality for the final result of the film.

Film Loader (Camera Department): A person that is trained to load the motion picture film to the camera magazine then unload it after the shoot. The one who is responsible for monitoring the number of the films. They work closely with the 1st and 2nd AC.

First Assistant Camera (Camera Department): Also known as a Focus Puller. Responsible for the maintenance of the camera to stay focused as the actors and actresses move around all throughout the shooting period. They decide on what are the necessary accessories to be used like (matte boxes, lens changes, filters, external viewing monitors, video assist devices, etc.) and supervise the 2nd Camera Operator as well as the other members of the Camera Department. They arrive on the set early to ensure the camera equipment is properly set before the start of the shoot.

First Assistant Director (Production Department): They are the right-hand of the Director, assisting the Director in coordinating and supervising the whole production, the crew and the activities. With director’s decision, the 1st AD may also be accountable for directing some background actions for significant shots or the whole of fairly minor shots.

Foley Artist (Sound Department): Foley is the process of reproducing everyday sounds and then adding them to a soundtrack in post-production, helping to improve and enhance the audible quality, as well as the realism within a film. These sounds may be anything from a knock at a door and breaking glass to the honking of a car horn and the rustling of leaves. Since there is not constant dialogue within films, these additional sounds add vital realism and background noise to what would otherwise be an unnaturally quiet film.

Food Catering (Food Department): Is a person or group that arranges, delivers and prepares food for events or occasions. They have very good interpersonal skills and capable of working under pressure and to a tight schedule.

Food Stylist (Food Department): Are professional cooks that use culinary art and science to prepare food. Their creativity with prepping food ensures the quality and exact look of the food being used on set so all clients are happy.

 Gaffer (Electrical Department): Occasionally known as the Chief Lighting Technician, the gaffer is an electrician, often the person in charge of the electrical department, and is responsible for the design and execution of the lighting plan for a motion picture production. The gaffer can utilise their knowledge and expertise to recreate a variety of different effects, such as creating a sunset in the middle of the morning or the lighting effects in various transportation, such as an aeroplane or a cruise liner. Gaffers sometimes work together with the key grip, whose task it is to deal with the lighting equipment, and a best boy, who is the assistant to the gaffer.

Genny Operator (Electrical Department): The person responsible for keeping the generator in good running condition. They monitor the generator if needed to ensure it has a good wiring system, good power output, fuel loaded and ready to be used anytime.

Graphics Department: A team of professional graphic artists that focuses the construction and creativity of the project.

Greensman (Art and Set Department): They are responsible for taking care of all sorts of greenery. They also work the landscaping and maintenance of the ground and some tools used.

Grip Department: The team needs to work with the Electrical department to ensure the proper placement of lighting setups necessary for a shot. They are also responsible for moving and adjusting set pieces for proper camera positioning. The team is composed of a Key Grip, Best boy Grip and a Dolly Grip.

Graffiti: Street art, either lettering or images, that is painted, scratched, or sprayed onto the property. Modern graffiti combines bright colouring, bold typefaces and intricate artistry with a message with an often political and/or comical slant. Skilled graffiti artists continue to be in high demand as companies continue to want alternative formats to advertise their products/services.

Hair Stylist: Styles the hair of the actors/performers and ensures that the character’s personality is reflected through its hair colour, haircut and hair texture. They may have a test or prep day prior to the shoot.

Henna Artist (Make Up and Beauty Department): A skilled artist that uses dyes for their art of temporary tattoos. The artist can dye skin, hair, fingernails and fabrics.

Jewellery Making: The art of designing and making jewellery for performers, often with direction from the production’s fashion designer. Jewellery makers require a flair for design and exceptional motor control to enable them to handle intricate instruments smoothly, as well as technical proficiency in the relevant machinery, including drill and lathes.

Lead Man/ Swing Gang (Art and Set Department): They are set decorators. They play an important role in the set decorations from curtains, props, furniture, pictures, all moving elements to get the right setting for the scene.

Lighting Technician (Electrical Department): Also known as “sparks”, they play a crucial part in the production. They are specially trained to operate technical lighting equipment responsible for all the lighting effects in any set. They can set the lights to get the right mood or ambiance for a specific scene or event.

Line Producer (Production Department): A type of producer that manages the human resources of the production as well as the financial details. This includes crew salaries, wardrobe, location and equipment costs. They are also familiar with lighting, set design, wardrobe and sound systems.

Location Assistant (Location Department): One who assists the location manager. He/she supervises the scouts to look out details of the location of parking of water supply. Provides direction for the rest of the production team. He/she is to be on the location first before other crew, cleaning the set allowing the set dressers do the preparations before the start of the shoot, maintaining cleanliness during the shoot and manages the residents’ complaints. Then after the shoot, wrap things up, making the place seamlessly clean like it has never been used.

Location Manager (Location Department): In charge of choosing the right location for the production. Working on the set, they research the possible locations, read the script and study the storyboard so the location fits every scene.

Location Production Assistant (Location Department): One who prepares the location before the day of the shoot and then wrap things up after the production is finished.

Location Scout (Location Department): Their job is to help the location department to find the best location for an exact scene for the production. They are the one who looks for the location in person to ensure the details they get before it is presented to the production head.

Key Grip (Grip Department): The person who is the chief grip of the production and the head of the operations in the set. Specialize in rigging and putting up lights necessary for various shots to achieve the right lighting and blocking. Often works closely with the Director of Photography.

Key Hair (Hair Department): Under the director, they are responsible for the design and hair style of all the cast in the production. They work closely with the make up artist to ensure the hair style would fit the makeup for a specific scene.

Key Make Up Artist (Make Up and Beauty Department): Under the director, he/she is the head of his department. Responsible for the overall makeup, facial and body hair designs for all the cast in the film. Often works with the Hair & Makeup Designer. They make sure that the cast looks are set for every scene they’re doing.

Make Up Artist (Make Up and Beauty Department): Under the key makeup artist, he/she ensures that the cast, model or performer has the suitable makeup and hairstyles before they perform in front of the camera. Also responsible for applying touch up in between scenes to maintain their looks all throughout the shoot.

Matte Painter (Visual Effects): Responsible for conceptualizing the ideas from the storyboard. Working close to Art Director and Look Paint Supervisor. He/she provides layout and modeling to visualize the ideas to finalize the shoot plan.

Medic (Medical Department): Is a health care professional hired on the set ready to give medical assistance when needed.

Mini Bus Driver (Transportation Department): A professional driver responsible for operating mini buses.

Mixing Engineer (Sound Department): Also known as sound technician. Their job is to record, synchronize, mix music, sound effects and sound effects and ensure fine-tuning of the final mix or also known as mix down. These experts can work with different recording systems and equipment, discuss with performing artists and maintain audio equipment.

Motion Control Technician/ Operator (Technical Department): Is a professional technician whose job is to manage the motion control rig, a robot camera.

Movement Director (Creative Department): Has both director and choreographer skills. He/she can help actors, artist and models in setting their movement to complement their performer, whist still delivering the specific movement required for the scenes on the storyboard.

Music Supervisor (Sound Department): A person who works closely with composer, mixing engineer and other editors to produce and incorporate the music to an event or production. They also manage the negotiations between the production and the recording industry about license and use rights.

Musical Director: A person who leads a musical group and is responsible for the overall musical performance of the production. He ensures that all the cast knows the music thoroughly, supervised the musical interpretation of the performers, conducts the orchestra and compose music.

Negative Cutter (Post Production Department): Under the film editor the negative cutter helps the editor gathering negative reels by cutting and merging the film. The reels are to be printed for projection.

Nail Technician (Make Up and Beauty Department): A professional beauty experts that focus on manicure and pedicure. They can specialize in nail art, nail repair along with hand and foot treatment.

Painter: A person who does visual artistry utilizing their skills through paints.

Personal Shopper (Costume and Wardrobe Department): Are experts in marketing and focuses mainly on clothes, they help people by giving advice on shopping. They have high knowledge on products, brands and trends.

Photography: The art of taking, developing, editing, and presenting still images. A photographer must have an intuitive grasp of what makes a good photograph, as well a technical education in photographic effects, camera technology, the developing process, and computer editing so that the final photographs are of professional quality. Professional photographers are also responsible for correctly framing photographs.

Poetry: A literary art form aimed at framing an often hidden message in a lyrical and evocative way. Poets must be proficient in poetic meter, understand the varied poetic forms, and have an ear for lyricism. Performance poetry events have dramatically increased in the last three decades, meaning poets must now command a strong public speaking ability.

Post-Production Supervisor (Post Production Department): Responsible for overseeing the post-production process. They manage to keep the information and communication between the producer, editor and other production crew clear. They also make sure that negotiations on budget and deadline are met.

Producer (Production Department): A person whose job is to oversee the welfare of the production and control the finances of a film project.

Production: The overall process of making a film from development, pre-production, production, post-production and distribution.  Usually involves a number of discrete stages including an initial storyidea, or commission, through scriptwritingcasting, shooting, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition.

Production Assistant (Interactive Media): The person who supports the first assistant director for some operations in the set. They are responsible for the administration, organizational and secretarial work done in the production.

Production Coordinator (Production Department): Is the connector of information on the production. Coordinating all the management from hiring crew, renting equipment, and booking talent.

Production Manager (Production Department): The person who oversees the physical aspects of the production, involving the personnel, technology, budget, and scheduling. Works under the line producer and ensure the production is on budget and schedule.

Production Designer (Art and Set Department): Works closely with the director and the photography director. The one who is responsible for the graphical look of the film, which includes the settings, costumes, props, character makeup.

Production Sound Mixer (Sound Department): Head of the sound department. Works with all the recordings in the production. Manages all the procedures with all the sound equipment on set.

Programmer (Interactive Media): Similar to the developer, he/she creates computer software to give functions to a product. They focus on the technical high level programming.

Project Manager (Interactive Media): The one who manages the project team, work schedules, budget, project delivery and also develop the project plan guaranteeing the efficiency of their work, on time and also just within the price range. He/she targets the proper procedure on working the assignment rather than the artistic necessities.

Props Builder/ Maker (Art and Set Department): Creates the particular props used for that motion picture. Props Constructors tend to be Professionals competent in design, materials spreading, machining, and also electronic devices.

Props Master (Art and Set Department): Responsible for finding materials to create props that are used in the film. They have few assistants for support.

Production Runner: Responsible in ensuring that all small tasks are performed by helping around the set, looking after the talents and fetches coffee for the crew.

Publicist (Production Department): The actual publicist manages the promotion of the movie. These people market the actual movie through giving PR campaigns as well as managing ads.

Researcher (Production Department): These people gather and evaluate information and also the precise product information which is useful for their customers. The information they acquired helps client to have easy, creative and concrete decisions.

Re-Recording Mixer (Sound Department): The person responsible for balancing the sound elements, dialogue, music and sound effect, then finalize them in one track.

Rotoscope Artists/ Paint Artists (Visual Effects): An expert that rotoscopes the scene, frame by frame creating mattes used in compositing. Also paints graphical information out of a scene, like eliminating cables and rigs, logos, dirt bursting, etc.

Seamstress/ Tailor (Costume and Wardrobe Department) The one who makes the costumes that are approved by the Art Director, Director, and Producer.

Second Assistant Camera Operator (Clapper Loader) (Camera Department): Also known as the clapper loader. It’s responsibility to load the film into the camera, operating the clapperboard at the commencement of a take and maintaining all records and documentation relating to the camera department.

Second Assistant Director (Production Department): Is the main assistant of the first assistant director, performs all those duties assigned by the first assistant director. They work closely with the production coordinator and create call sheets to inform the crew about the schedule and important details about the shoot day.

Set Decorator (Art and Set Department): Is an expert on interior design that is responsible for the decoration of the set. Works closely with the production designer and art director to ensure the right objects to be used in the set.

Set Dresser (Art and Set Department): Under the set decorator, he/she places and moves objects, furniture, lamps, mats, rugs and etc. They ensure that the site is ready with the right decors before the shooting day.

SEO Specialist (Interactive Media): Responsible for optimizing the website of the production to generate maximum traffic to push the website’s rank higher to be visible on internet search engines.

Script Coordinator (Script Department): Is in charge of creating drafts of the script and interpreting it for easy use in the production.

Script Editor (Script Department): Has great analytical skills to help the screenwriter in identifying the problems or errors and then develop them for best screenplay.

Security Guards (Security Department): Responsible for the secure and safe surroundings for cast and staff. They also keep track of the monitoring equipment and prevents losses and damage in the production.

Sound Department: The team responsible for the quality of audio materials used in the film/stage. It’s composed of a production sound mixer and a boom operator.

Sound Assistant (Sound Department): Gives support to the sound mixer and the boom operator in the operation of the equipment. They also check the sound equipment like microphones, batteries and a recording machine and ensure that the sound department will run smoothly in the production.

Sound Designer (Sound Department) Working under the director and editor, he/she stabilizes the sound to get the right quality for post-production.

Sound Editor (Sound Department): In charge of putting together and modifying all of the sound clips within the soundtrack.

Special Effects Make-Up SFX (Make Up and Beauty Department: Responsible for providing performers with makeup and prosthetic to enhance their appearance on the camera, T.V. or stage. They make advance cosmetic effects by prosthetic techniques like sculpting and moulding to acquire the desired appearance for the shoot. They maintain the make up on performers to compensate changes in the lighting and maintain the flow of the production.

Steadicam Operator (Camera Department): A person who works closely with camera operators. He/she is the one who manages the Steadicam to stabilize the movement of the camera.

Story Producer (Script Department): The one who is responsible for producing the story line analysing and editing the film.

Studio Manager (Interactive Media): The one who supervises the progress of the production ensuring the flow of the team’s work is smooth and organized.

Stunt Coordinator (Creative Department): Responsible for the staging the stunt scenes with the cast. They often works closely with the director and the 1st Assistant Director of the film.

Technicians (Technical Department): Are skilled workers that gives technical support in any mechanical or industrial field.

 Technical Director (Technical Department): Is the senior of the department. They operate, maintain and ensure the safety of the technical operations of the production. Monitoring the lighting, sound and other mechanical equipment.

 Telecine Colourist (Post Production Department): Responsible for altering and enhancing the colour of the film to set the right mood of the scene.

 Third Assistant Director (Production Department): Works with the first and second assistant director to coordinate with performers and movements around the set. They organize the crowd, according to the scenes, supervise and supports other production assistants.

 Truck Driver (Transportation Department): A professional driver who responsible for operating a truck.

Tour Manager: A person responsible for setting up the group/band`s schedule for the appearance and venues. They ensure travel preparations for artists to be seamlessly well and pleasantly as possible for the whole trip, providing them proper assistance and care all throughout.

Unit Manager (Production Department): He/ she has the same role as the production manager but is 2nd in the position.  He/ she incorporates the role of the Transport Coordinator in some functional constructions.

Unit Nurse (Medical Department): He/she provides medical assistance and is responsible for looking out for the health of the people in the production.

Video Editor (Post Production Department): Analyses the cut scenes and organize them to make the film sequence as flawless as possible.

Visual Effects Creative Director (Visual Effects): Works commonly on productions with many visual effects. They act as a director on smaller productions like music videos and commercials. They are responsible for the choices made for right visual effects used in the production.

Visual Effects Editor (Visual Effects): Responsible for integrating the desired visual effects to the cut scenes producing various versions to be evaluated.

Visual Effects Producer (Visual Effects) Works with the visual effects supervisor and director, he/she helps in breaking down the script to the storyboards. Assists in the schemes behind the scenes. He/she helps in deciding if scenes are to be live or computer generated.

Visual Effects Supervisor / Lead Compositor (Post Production Department): In charge of the visual effects department. Responsible for the final touches done on the images in the film.

Weapons Master (Art and Set Department): A professional technician who specialized on props like weapons, firearms and etc. Possess special training and a license in their background.

Web Editor (Interactive Media): Manages the development of the website and its publication. His/her job may include making a duplicate from scratch, organizing and editing other crew’s contributions.

Web Developer (Technical Department): May also be known as web designer. Working under the web editor, his/her job is focused on the backbone of the site mainly on the codes for development. They are responsible for the look, layout and features of a website.

Web Master (Technical Department): In charge of maintaining web sites. Ensure sites are running smoothly, properly and available. Ensures the servers, access speed, hardware and software are precised. They analyse site traffic generation and modify the sites appearance and settings.

Writing: Writing is the art of using words to communicate both a message and an emotion. Writers are required in all industries: scriptwriters for television/cinema/theatre, journalists for newspapers/magazines/radio, copywriters for marketing, and authors of books. Writers are expected to have impeccable spelling and grammar, a keen ear for lyrical prose, and be able to write simply and clearly.